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 Location: San Juan Teotihuacán, Mexico.  Grid Reference: 19° 42' N, 98° 51' W.

 

      Teotihuacán : (City of the Gods).

The original builders of the complex are unknown, but it is suggested by Spence (1), that it was the Mecca of the Nahua. The city was left abandoned in 700 AD.

It was suspected by Stansbury Hagar that the city had been built as a 'map of heaven'. During the 1960's and 1970's a comprehensive mathematical survey was carried out by Hugh Harleston Jr, who found that the principle structures line up along the 'Street of the dead' (and beyond), from which he concluded the city was a precise scale model of the solar system, including Uranus, Neptune and Pluto (not rediscovered until 1787, 1846 and 1930 respectively. (21).

(Click here for map of the site)

 

 

   Teotihuacán:

Teotihuacan means 'The City of the Gods", or "Where Men Become Gods" (in Nahuatl).

Although not much is known about the earliest phase of Teotihuacan, From the Tzacualli to Miccaotli phases; A.D. 1-200, which were characterized by monumental construction, Teotihuacan quickly became the largest and most populous urban center in the New World. Teotihuacan was the sixth largest city on the world during its period of greatest prosperity, according to an estimated population of 125,000 (Millon 1993:33). The city seems to have functioned for centuries as a well-developed urban centre until its sudden collapse, sometime around the 7th cent AD.

 

The Avenue of the dead - Running south from the Pyramid of the moon for about 3.2 km, where it was bisected by an east-west Avenue of equal length. Along it are a series of open courtyards', each up to 145m wide and lined with small platforms. (12).

The Avenue of the Dead was the main street of Teotihuacan. It ran south for more than 3km, beginning at the Moon Plaza and extending beyond the Ciudadela and the Great Compound complexes to the south. According to Millon (Cowgill 1992a:96; Millon 1981:221), the avenue continued even further south, terminating near the edge of the mountains on the distant horizon.

A large, long drainage channel ran under the floor of the avenue gathering rain water from neighbouring architectural units and draining it into Rio San Juan.

 

 

   Teotihuacán Pyramids:

 

There are two larger pyramids and one smaller at Teotihuacan. The smaller one, called 'The Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl' or the 'Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent' is now considered to be the most important of the three. A series of tunnels have been found underneath it in 2010. They are thought to be the resting place of the Ruling elite.

 

The layout is often compared to the pyramids at Giza (left), and Orion (centre).

(It is noticeable that there are also several triple-circles in England which share the same layout)

(More on the Subject of Triple Circles)

 

The Pyramid of the Sun:

The largest of the Teotihuacán pyramids, the pyramid of the sun was actually reconstructed as five stepped platforms. However, the forth platform seems to have been erroneously reconstructed by Batres following his heavy-handed excavations in 1907. The pyramid originally consisted of four stepped platforms, a surmounting temple, and the Adosada platform, which was built over what was originally the principal facade of the pyramid. No information about the temple itself is available, since, along with the upper-most portion of the pyramid, it has been completely destroyed.

(Photo Credits: montagesinmexico.wordpress.com)

The top storey temple containing a great image of the sun carved from a rough block of stone. In the breast was inlaid a star of the purest gold, which was later seized by the followers of Cortes (1).

 

Physical statistics:

Alignment - Orientated several degrees east of True North.

Height - 233.5 ft (21), 230 ft (12),

Angle of side - 43.5º (21)

Perimeter of base - 2932.8 ft (21)

Length of side - 233.5 m (21), 225m (12).

 

The dimensions of the Pyramid of the Sun incorporate 'Pi' in the following way: (4 x Π) x h = Perimeter / Circumference of base. (21) The pyramids base area is almost the same as that of the great pyramid of Ghiza. (21), (12), The height is almost half.

It was discovered in 1971, that leading from a natural cave, 6m below the pyramid, and running for approx' 100m to the east, is a natural passageway. (12). It opens close under the centre of the Pyramid into a 'four-leaved-clover' shape, each 'leaf', about 60 ft in circumference and containing beautifully engraved slate discs and highly polished mirrors. There was also a complex drainage system of interlocking segments of carved rock pipes. (21).

Mexico's first great city, Teotihuacan coalesced out of a number of small hamlets in the early years of the first century B.C., after, as archaeologists believe, the discovery of a four-chambered lava-tube cave in the Teotihuacan Valley. Caves played an integral role in Mesoamerican religion, being places of emergence of gods and ancestors as well as portals to the underworld, the world of demons and other potent beings. The Teotihuacan cave may have held particular significance, its four lobes representing the four parts of the Mesoamerican cosmos. It soon became a focal point of ritual activity and settlement in the valley. Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Sun was built directly over the cave in the second century A.D. (2)

 

Article: Feb: 2013: (LaTimes.com)

'Mexico finds Fire-God Figure at top of Pyramid of the Sun'

'Mexican archaeologists announced this week that a figure of the god, called Huehueteotl, was found in a covered pit at the apex of the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan. The discovery suggests that a long-disappeared temple at the top of the pyramid was used to perform ritual offerings to the fire god, Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History, or INAH, said in a statement Monday. Archaeologists found the Huehueteotl, along with two stone pillars, in a covered pit about 15 feet deep, at a height of about 214 feet from the ground. The pit is below the remnants of a platform at the top of the Pyramid of the Sun that probably served as the foundation for a temple'.

(Link to Full Article)

 

Article: Feb, 2012 (PressTV)

'Jade Mask discovered in Pyramid of the Sun'

Archaeologists have discovered a jade funerary mask during their excavations under the pyramid of the sun. The mask was part of an 'offering' found under the pyramid, seven human burials including children who were buried before the construction of the building. 'Several numbers of obsidian artefacts were also found including projectile heads and small knives along with an anthropomorphic eccentric artefact and three anthropomorphic figurines with shell and pyrite eyes'.

The discovery of an Olmec Jade mask 'beneath' the pyramid suggests a cultural connection between the Olmecs and the original builders. The archaeologists also determined that 'During excavating the tunnel into the heart of the pyramid three architectural structures were discovered that are older than the current Pyramid of the Sun' (6). Future analysis of these structures will undoubtedly better our understanding of the origin of the Teotihuacán complex itself.

 

The Pyramid of the Moon:

The Moon Pyramid is located at the northern end of the Avenue of the Dead, which was the main axis of the city. A similar edifice as the Pyramid of the sun, but smaller in scale, built in the second half of the 2nd century AD. According to Aztec tradition it was once surmounted by a 20 ton statue. (12). The Pyramid of the moon was an integral part of the complex, being built into the landscape as the following picture demonstrates.

The pyramid of the moon facing North: The peaks of 'Cerra gordo' and the pyramid coincide.

The Cerro Gordo ("Fat Hill"), was a sacred mountain just north of the site associated with the goddess cult and the region's fertility.

 

The Chambers of the Pyramid of the moon:

Article. (Archaeology. Dec 4. 1998)

'A burial chamber containing what may be the remains of a retainer of an early ruler of Teotihuacan, an ancient metropolis 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, has been found within the Pyramid of the Moon, at the northern end of the site's main thoroughfare, the Street of the Dead. Discovered by Arizona State University (ASU) archaeologist Saburo Sugiyama, the skeleton, thought to be that of an adult male who was bound and sacrificed, was buried in a square chamber 11.3 feet on each side and five feet deep. He was surrounded by more than 150 burial offerings, including obsidian and greenstone figurines, obsidian blades and points, pyrite mirrors, conch and other shells, and the remains of eight birds (hawks or falcons) and two jaguars, which may have been buried alive. "The quality of the offerings," says Sugiyama, "is exceptional, particularly in light of the more than 1,200 burials found at the site so far."

The discovery of pyramid funerary remains is in keeping with discoveries at Mayan centres of Palenque and Copan.

The grave, which dates to about A.D. 150, is associated with pyramid's fourth construction phase. What we see today is the fifth and last, built ca. A.D. 250. "The pyramid of the Moon," says Sugiyama, "started out as a rather small temple beneath what is now the five-tiered platform in front of the pyramid. After two additional construction episodes, the builders embarked on the construction of the pyramid itself." (2)

 

 

Temple of Quetzalcoatl (The Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent).

A six-stage pyramid with a height of 72 ft, and a base area of 82,000 ft. It is located in the Ciudadela at the southern end of the avenue of the dead.

This pyramid was built over existing structures, and has been built over since by the 'Adosada', which was integrated into the design of the original temple, archaeology has re-exposed the original temple of the feathered serpent,  upon which can be seen the numerous 'feathered serpents' heads carved into the temples facade and stairwell.

A prehistoric structure had been buried beneath a much later mound immediately in front of it. The exposed temple still had traces of multicoloured paintings on the rows of rectangular panels superimposed on the sloping walls with sculpted serpent heads lining the sides of the stairway and facing blocks. (21).

Several mass graves, excavated between 1982 and 1989, were found around and beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (Quetzelcoatl) at the southern end of the site. The 137 people buried there were apparently sacrificed, their hands tied behind their backs, during the construction of the pyramid. (2)

(The Feathered Serpent in Mythology)

 

Article, (Aug 2010): Tunnel System Uncovered at the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent.

'Following 8 months of investigative work, archaeologists of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) located, 12 meters below, the entrance to the tunnel that leads to galleries under the Feathered Serpent Temple, in Teotihuacan.

The tunnel passes under the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, the most important building of the Citadel, “and the entry was located a few meters from the pyramid. A vertical shaft of almost 5 meters by side is the access to the tunnel: it goes 14 meters deep, and the entrance leads to a nearly 100 meters long corridor that ends in a series of underground galleries excavated in the rock.

The tunnel was discovered in late 2003 by Sergio Gomez and Julie Gazzola, but its exploration has required several years of planning and managing the financial resources necessary to carry out research at the highest scientific level. So far, 200 tons of earth have been withdrawn, he said, while doing this we have found about 60,000 pieces of artefacts and pottery.

“Several indications suggest that access to the underground passage was closed between 200 and 250 AD, probably after depositing something inside. One of the hypotheses postulate that, within the large chamber detected by the GPR, we could locate the remains of important people in the city. ”

The investigations have led to know with certainty that this tunnel was made prior to the construction of the Temple of the Feathered Serpent and the Citadel. The tunnel is contemporary with a large architectural structure, which could be a ball game court, according to the form of the ground. According to the hypothesis about the meaning and symbolism of the tunnel, archaeologist Sergio Gomez, said the tunnel had to be linked to concepts related to the underworld, hence it is possible that in this place were carried out initiation rituals and the divine investiture of Teotihuacan rulers, since the power was acquired in these sacred spaces.

the excavation have permitted to recuperate thousands of small ornaments, made of shell, jade from Guatemala, serpentine, slate and obsidian, thrown by the people from Teotihuacan as offerings at the moment of closing the entrance. Several parts of a frieze that may have decorated a building prior to the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, and that was dismantled, have been found as well'. (5)

© Photo: DMC, INAH. Photographer: Mauricio Marat

(Press release of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), Mexico, 3 August 2010)

"It is possible," concluded Sergio Gómez, "that the tunnel discovered would have been the most important and sacred element around which the first constructions were undertaken on this site about 100 B.C., and where later on The Citadel was erected, which was the magnificent stage where rituals associated with the myths of creation and the beginning of the mythic time must have been performed."

(MailOnline: June, 2011). 120m tunnel discovered, believed to lead to rulers burial chambers.

(Other Prehistoric Underground Structures)

 

 

The Mica Temple:

Following the discovery of mica in the Pyramid of the Sun, two more sheets, approx' 90 ft square, and laid directly on top of one another, were discovered beneath the stone paved floor of the Mica temple. Trace element testing showed it to originate 2000 miles away in Brazil. (21) Similar finds of Mica have been found at some Mayan sites.

The first sheets of mica were found in between two of the upper levels of the Pyramid of the Sun. The discovery occurred in 1906, when the complex was restored. But the mica was removed and sold as soon as it had been excavated, by Leopoldo Batres, the man in charge of the project.
More recently, a “Mica Temple” has been discovered on the site, but this time, the mica has remained in situ. The temple sits around a patio about 300 metres south of the west face of the Pyramid of the Sun. Directly under a floor paved with heavy rock slabs, they found two massive sheets of mica. The sheets are 90 feet square and form two layers, one laid directly on top of the other. As it sits underneath a stone floor, its use was obviously not decorative, but functional.
Mica is a substance containing different metals, depending on the kind of rock formation in which it is found. The type of mica found at Teotihuacán indicates a type that is only found in Brazil, more than 2000 miles away. The same South American mica was found in Olmec sites. It is clear that its presence in Teotihuacán involved a lot of effort – and it thus must have played an important role

As yet there is no satisfactory explanation as to how the Mica sheets (up-to 30cm thick) were transported there over 2000 Miles, nor their significance or purpose in relation to the complex or pyramids.

According to most sources the mica is said to originate from a source in Brazil, over 2000miles distant (suggesting transport by boat),  for Example, Childress (3) says of it 'According to expert opinions the mica found at Teotihuacán is a type found only in faraway Brazil', While Fagan (4), calls it 'locally mined mica'. The jury is out on this one.

Mica is used by the electronics industry in capacitor construction, Thermal and electric insulation, Opaque to fast neutrons, and it acts as a moderator in nuclear reactions.

(Other Examples of Electricity in pre-history)

 

 

 

The marks inside this stone cylinder suggests that it was drilled, providing yet another example of the advanced masonry skills in the pre-Columbian America's.

 

 

 

Archaeoastronomy at Teotihuacan.

It is a curious fact that the city of Teotihuacán was meticulously laid out on a grid which is offset 15º.5 from the cardinal points. Its main avenue, the "Street of the Dead," runs from 15º.5 east of north to 15º.5 west of south, as does its most impressive structure, the Pyramid of the Sun, which is directly oriented to a point 15º.5 north of west.

(Archaeoastronomy)

 

 

(Other Mexican sites)

(Pyramids Homepage)

(Pre-Columbian Americas Homepage)

References:

1) Lewis Spence, Mexico and Peru, 1994, Senate press.
2). http://archaeology.asu.edu/teo/intro/moon.htm
3). Renato Vesco, David Hatcher Childress. Man Made UFO's. 2007. Adventures Unlimited Press.
4). Fagan, Garrett G. (2006). Archaeological Fantasies: How Pseudoarchaeology Misrepresents the Past and Misleads the Public. New York: Routledge. pp. 102.
5). http://heritage-key.com/blogs/ann/teotihuacan-tunnel-found-under-temple-quetzalcoatl-feathered-serpent
6). http://www.presstv.ir/detail/224988.html
12). The atlas of mysterious places. Guild publishing. 1987.
21). G. Hancock. Fingerprints of the gods. Mandarin. 1996.
 
 
Further Research:

Additional information on Teotihuacan at: SacredSites.com 

 
 
 
 
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