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        Underwater Constructions:

There are several well-known examples of underwater structures around the world ...

...their existence raises questions over the established view of prehistoric events.

Featured Items:

Post-Glacial Sea-levels

Following the end of the last ice-age the world experienced a period of flood events, which raised the coastline around the world by several metres, flooding all the existing coastal cultures of the time. This natural process has occurred again and again over history, with the sea-level mostly lower than it is today through the long periods of Ice-age. The contours of these 'Ice-age' coast-lines are easy to determine with contour maps which show what's commonly called the 'continental shelf'. In fact, with computer simulation, it is now becoming possible to estimate the age of underwater discoveries reasonably accurately through their relative depths underwater. While it is accepted that this science is still in its infancy, the implications of certain underwater discoveries are forcing historians to reconsider the recent path of human evolution.

(World Map Showing Ice-age Coastlines and Continental Shelf)

The strong traditions and myths surrounding water have given it an association with the sacred. The Sumerian 'Epic of Creation' describes the Fish-God Eana coming from the water 'after the deluge' to bring knowledge to the people. A similar myth exists in south American with Quetzalcoatl, while in the bible, we are told that God sent a flood to destroy mankind for its sins. Perhaps this is why water has also adopted such a strong association with the afterlife. In many myths, the 'Primal Mound' is mentioned, rising from the watery deep. This particular set of myths is reflected in the association between pyramids and water, as seen in many of the largest pyramid complexes in the ancient world.

(Article: Pyramids: Plugging the Deep. 2011)

 

Examples of Underwater Discoveries:

 

   The Gulf of Cambay, Indian Ocean:

  It was announced, following the Boxing-day Tsunami of 2004 that the remains of an ancient city was uncovered close to the Mamallapuram temple in Tamil Nadu, India.

 
UK News report - Quote:
'The remains, which include two granite lions were discovered after the coastline had receded by a fisherman who survived the tsunami by clinging to the arch of the shore temple. Scientists from the Archaeological Survey of India are examining the relics close to the 7th century beachfront temple and are continuing an underwater search that started in 2002 for further remnants of the submerged port city. Legend has it that a large city which once stood on the site was so beautiful that jealous gods sent a flood to swallow it'.

(The Guardian. 02.04.2005)

 

 

The Gulf of Cambay cities: Update.

  • Work in peripheral land areas of the Gulf of Cambay like Kathana, Lotal and Motibaur gave evidences of major earthquakes in the Cambay areas in the following period (1) 2780 ± 150 years BP, (2) 3983 ± 150 BP and (3) 7540 ± 130 BP. Herein lies the evidence of the end of the Gulf of Cambay civilization.

In the old major event at about 7,600 BC, the southern metropolis appear to have been thrown down by faulting and the nearby sea appear to have inundated it. Because of this the people appear to have proceeded north in the elevation higher than the sea level and established the 2nd or northern metropolis.

This also got affected by faulting due to earth quakes around 4,000 BP and destroyed by the 2780 ± 150 BP earthquake, by down-throwing the metropolis with the sea transgressed the area to completely submerging it.

  • The site has yielded artefacts dated at 9,500 BP. (7,500 BC)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1768109.stm

 

 

The Gulf of Cambay cities: Update.

Article By BBC News Online's Tom Housden :

The vast city - which is five miles long and two miles wide - is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years.

The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology conducting a survey of pollution.

Using sidescan sonar - which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120ft.

Debris recovered from the site - including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture and human bones and teeth has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old.

Marine archaeologists have used a technique known as sub-bottom profiling to show that the buildings remains stand on enormous foundations.

Chronological problem

This, Mr Hancock told BBC News Online, could have massive repercussions for our view of the ancient world.

"There's a huge chronological problem in this discovery. It means that the whole model of the origins of civilisation with which archaeologists have been working will have to be remade from scratch," he said.

However, archaeologist Justin Morris from the British Museum said more work would need to be undertaken before the site could be categorically said to belong to a 9,000 year old civilisation.

"Culturally speaking, in that part of the world there were no civilisations prior to about 2,500 BC. What's happening before then mainly consisted of small, village settlements," he told BBC News Online.

Dr Morris added that artefacts from the site would need to be very carefully analysed, and pointed out that the C14 carbon dating process is not without its error margins.

It is believed that the area was submerged as ice caps melted at the end of the last ice age 9-10,000 years ago

Although the first signs of a significant find came eight months ago, exploring the area has been extremely difficult because the remains lie in highly treacherous waters, with strong currents and rip tides.

The Indian Minister for Human Resources and ocean development said a group had been formed to oversee further studies in the area.

"We have to find out what happened then ... where and how this civilisation vanished," he said.

(More about Prehistoric India)

 

 

   Mayan Portal to the Underworld, Mexico:

A labyrinth filled with stone temples and pyramids in 14 caves—some underwater—have been uncovered on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, archaeologists announced in Aug 2008.

According to Maya myth, the souls of the dead had to follow a dog with night vision on a horrific and watery path and endure myriad challenges before they could rest in the afterlife.

In one of the recently found caves, researchers discovered a nearly 300-foot (90-meter) concrete road that ends at a column standing in front of a body of water.

"We have this pattern now of finding temples close to the water—or under the water, in this most recent case," said Guillermo de Anda, lead investigator at the research sites.

Saturno said the discovery of the temples underwater indicates the significant effort the Maya put into creating these portals. In addition to plunging deep into the forest to reach the cave openings, Maya builders would have had to hold their breath and dive underwater to build some of the shrines and pyramids.

Other Maya underworld entrances have been discovered in jungles and above-ground caves in northern Guatemala Belize. These Pre-Columbian discoveries testify to the strong link between water and the underworld. There have been several recent discoveries of cave systems with temples built underwater in the caves themselves. This has greatly enhanced our understanding of the Mayan concept of the underworld. In 2008 in one cave, researchers discovered a nearly 300-foot (90-meter) road that led down to a column standing in front of a body of water. "We have this pattern now of finding temples close to the water—or under the water" (11). The Chitzen Itza complex was built beside two water filled 'cenotes', now considered the very reason for the location of the temple complex itself. The numerous discoveries of worship, sacrifice, blessings and incense at cenotes leave little doubt as to their having been considered as entrances to the underworld (12).

(More about Pre-Columbian Mexico)     (More about this discovery)

 

 

Argentinean Stone-Heads:

 

This recently discovered stone-head was found in the waters of Lake Traful, in Patagonia, Argentina. The Lake is the starting point of the Traful River that empties into the Nahuel Huapi Lake. At Present nothing more is known about it.

Photo Copyright: http://www.arqueologicas.com.ar/

Another Image is available here: http://www.underwaterphotography.com

 

 

 

 

   Underwater Structures, Yonaguni, Japan:

Found near the south shore of Okinawa, Japan in 1995, these fantastic underwater structures were at first argued to have been fashioned by nature.

'The sunken buildings are known to cover the ocean bottom (although not continuously) from the small island of Yonaguni in the southwest to Okinawa and its neighbouring islands, Kerama and Aguni, some 311 miles. If, after all, ongoing exploration here does indeed reveal more structures linking Yonaguni with Okinawa, the individual sites may be separate components of a huge city lying at the bottom of the Pacific. The single largest structure so far discovered lies near the eastern shore of Yonaguni at 100 feet down. It is approximately 240 feet long, 90 feet across and 45 feet high'. (2)
                                                                             

'The 'Yonagumi monument is over 50m long in an east-west direction and over 30m wide in a north-south direction. The top of the structure lies about 5m below sea level, whereas the base is approximately 25m below the surface' (3)

(More about the Yonaguni Monument)

(Prehistoric Pacific Islanders)

 

 

   The North Sea, Underwater Survey 2007:

Archaeologists are uncovering a huge prehistoric "lost country" hidden below the North Sea.

 

Extract from BBC News education by Sean Coughlan: (4)

This lost landscape, where hunter-gatherer communities once lived, was swallowed by rising water levels at the end of the last ice age.

University of Birmingham researchers are heralding "stunning" findings as they map the "best-preserved prehistoric landscape in Europe".

This large plain disappeared below the water more than 8,000 years ago.

The Birmingham researchers have been using oil exploration technology to build a map of the once-inhabited area that now lies below the North Sea - stretching from the east coast of Britain up to the Shetland Islands and across to Scandinavia.

"It's like finding another country," says Professor Vince Gaffney, chair in Landscape Archaeology and Geomatics. It also serves as a warning for the scale of impact that climate change can cause, he says.

Human communities would have lost their homelands as the rising water began to encroach upon the wide, low-lying plains.

"At times this change would have been insidious and slow - but at times, it could have been terrifyingly fast. It would have been very traumatic for these people," he says.

"It would be a mistake to think that these people were unsophisticated or without culture... they would have had names for the rivers and hills and spiritual associations - it would have been a catastrophic loss," says Professor Gaffney.

As the temperature rose and glaciers retreated and water levels rose, the inhabitants would have been pushed off their hunting grounds and forced towards higher land - including to what is now modern-day Britain.

"In 10,000 BC, hunter-gatherers were living on the land in the middle of the North Sea. By 6,000 BC, Britain was an island. The area we have mapped was wiped out in the space of 4,000 years," explains Professor Gaffney.

So far, the team has examined a 23,000-sq-km area of the sea bed - mapping out coastlines, rivers, hills, sandbanks and salt marshes as they would have appeared about 12,000 years ago.

And once the physical features have been established, Professor Gaffney says it will be possible to narrow the search for sites that could yield more evidence of how these prehistoric people lived.

These inhabitants would have lived in family groups in huts and hunted animals such as deer.

The mapping of this landscape could also raise questions about its preservation, says Professor Gaffney - and how it can be protected from activities such as pipe-laying and the building of wind farms. (4)

 

 

 

   Bimini, South America:

This classic underwater site has been repeatedly studied since its discovery in 1968 .

The Bimini Road (right) is an underwater formation near North Bimini island in the Bahamas. Discovered in 1968, it is generally assumed to be of natural origins. Some have claimed that the formation is an ancient road, or perhaps a collapsed wall.

In May 2005, a series of unexpected discoveries was made at Bimini by Donato and the Littles. These included the discovery of numerous stone anchors at the main Bimini formation (commonly referred to as the “Bimini Road” or “Bimini Wall”). Several cut artefacts, including two-dozen pieces of grey marble, were recovered from under large blocks at the Bimini site. In addition, numerous uniform, rectangular slabs of stone with sharp, angular edges and smooth sides were photographed under massive blocks. In several cases, stacks of these slabs were photographed under huge blocks—essentially serving as levelling stones. Numerous multiple tiers of stone were also photographed. A nearby site, called “Proctor’s Road,” yielded at least 8 stone anchors found on the bottom, mortise cuts on stones, and at least five stone circles placed at regular intervals. (5)

Go to http://satellitediscoveries.com - For several satellite shots of underwater anomalies in the region.

 

 

 

 

   Animal Behaviour:

As well as the existence of man-made structures , there are still residual 'memories' visible in nature which also demonstrate a time when the coast-lines of the land masses were different to their present form.

 
  • Lewis Spence suggested that the 'Catopsilia' butterfly from the north coast of S. America may genetically remember a land area in the ocean east of Guyana, since every year the male butterfly of the species undertake a fatal mass flight over the ocean until "in great coloured clouds they fly into the sea" (1)

 

  • A Phenomena is reported by seamen and fishermen in an area south of the Azores as they observed flocks of migratory birds on their annual winter flight from Europe to S. America. As the birds arrive within the area, the flocks begin to circle around over open sea as if looking for a place to land, some of the tired birds falling into the ocean. The birds repeat the same process when they return from S. America. (1)

 
  • European and American eels, both of which species make a journey over thousands of miles of rivers, seas and oceans, eventually to spawn in the Sargasso sea. Plato commented on the fact that the European eel, which every two years disappeared from the lakes and ponds of Europe and swam down rivers into the sea. It is now known that eels from both sides of the Atlantic return to their breeding ground. The European eels take four months to return en-masse. (1)

 

 

 

   Other Underwater Ruins:

Recent Discoveries

 

Article: Statesman.com (May, 2013)

'Massive Underwater Structure Baffles Archaeologists'

'A Massive circular monument was recently discovered beneath the Sea of Gallilee. It's thousands of years old - A conical, manmade structure weighing hundreds of tons. The monumental structure, made of boulders and stones with a diameter of 70m (230ft), emerged from a routine sonar scan in 2003. Researchers at the University of Haifa have been reported as saying "We only know it is there, it is huge and it is unusual".

(Link to Article)

 

Article: MSNBC (Feb, 2012):

'Google-Earth Update Eradicates Evidence of Atlantis':

A Google-Earth map (Below) that raised rumours of the lost city of Atlantis off the coast of Africa in 2009 has been updated, eradicating the image in the process. The images appeared to show a grid-like pattern on the seafloor which some believed were sunken streets from the mythological underwater city. The official explanation for it is that they are trawler lines.

(Ref: http://www.msnbc Feb. 5, 2012)

 

Spain - Using satellite photography, ground-penetrating radar and underwater technology, a team of experts (led by University of Hartford professor and archaeologist Richard Freund) has been surveying marshlands in Spain to look for proof of an ancient city. The team have been attempting to match geological formations to Plato's descriptions and date artefacts back to the time of Atlantis.

(Ref: ScienceDaily Mar. 13, 2011) 

 

Greece - Archaeologists surveying the world’s oldest submerged town have found ceramics dating back to the Final Neolithic. Their discovery suggests that Pavlopetri, off the southern Laconia coast of Greece, was occupied some 5,000 years ago — at least 1,200 years earlier than originally thought.

(Ref: ScienceDaily, Oct. 16, 2009)

 

South England - Excavations of an underwater Stone Age archaeological settlement dating back 8,000 years took place at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton between 30 July – 3 August 2007.

(Ref: ScienceDaily, Aug. 14, 2007)

 

The coast of Morocco - Single stones recorded, each one larger than 'two-storey houses', have been discovered incorporated into a wall extending for 9 miles under the sea. (1)

Loch Ness, Scotland - A Sonar scan revealed the presence of underwater prehistoric stone ruins. (1)

Bahamas - The famous 'Blue holes', with underwater stalactites and stalagmites. (1)

Yucatan and Belize - Ancient Mayan roads continue out from the coast to destinations undersea. (1)

North of Venezuela - An underwater wall was found that extends for at least a hundred miles. (1)

Madeira - It was on the 'Ampere Seamont', north of Madeira that a Russian expedition reported in 1977 that underwater photographs showed pictures of walls, pavements and steps. (1)

The coast of France - Out in the Mediterranean, in front of Marseille, the passages of an underwater cliff have revealed a series of mine shafts and smelting facilities. (1)

The coast of Georgia - There is another long and wide underwater road in the Atlantic off the coast of Georgia. (1)

Jaques Cousteau tells of having discovered a road along the sea bottom of the Mediterranean. (1)

 

(Pyramids: Plugging The Deep)

(Underground Construction)

(Homepage)

 

References:

1) C. Berlitz. Atlantis.
4). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/uk_news/education/6584011.stm
5). http://www.mysterious-america.net/bimini-caysal200.html
6). http://www.users.on.net/~mkfenn/GeneticsrewritesPacificprehistory.htm
7). http://circulartimes.org/Enigmatic%20Yonaguni%20Underwater%20RMS%20CT.htm
11). http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080822-maya-maze.html
12). http://gomexico.about.com/od/ancientsites/g/cenote.htm

 

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