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  • The Top-50 Megaliths: (The largest cut-stones of all time).

One of the most remarkable prehistoric human achievements was our ability to work with stone on a seemingly gigantic and effortless scale, which apart from the technical implications, reveals the presence of sophisticated and complex people, who proved themselves to be anything but primitive.

Many of the 'estimates' on this page are only estimates - and  several vary from author to author. 

As such, and where estimates differ considerably, the density of rock can be calculated using  S.I. recognised estimates for the weight of rock, but even the weight of similar rock varies from one m³ to another. As such, and without actually weighing the rocks themselves, they will remain estimates.

Note: (1 Metric ton = 1,000kg), (1 US ton  = 0.907 Metric tonnes), (1 Imperial ton = 1.016 Metric tonnes)

 

Scroll down for the Top-50 Megaliths of all time.

1) The Unfinished Obelisk, Aswan, Egypt. - Measures 120-feet (42m) and would have weighed over 1,168 tons when complete.

Ref: (Sci. Amer. Dec. 1977. No. 36).  - Estimated @ 1200 tons

This incredible stone is more than twice the size of any known obelisk ever raised. Quarrymen apparently abandoned the obelisk when natural fractures appeared in its sides. However, the stone, still attached to bedrock, gives important clues to how the ancients quarried granite. Much of the red granite used for ancient temples and colossi came from quarries in the Aswan area (500 miles south of Cairo). The Unfinished Obelisk still lies where a crack was discovered as it was being hewn from the rock. Possibly intended as a companion to the Lateran Obelisk (see below), originally at Karnak, now in Rome.

(More about the Unfinished obelisk)   (Other Egyptian Obelisks)

 

2) Ba'albek, Lebanon. - (The 'Stone of the South).

Estimates of the weight of this stone vary considerably.

Although the highest estimates of the unfinished stone's weight have reached an incredible 2,000 tons (7),(11), these estimates are now considered too high.

Quarry stone: (Photo Right), Measures 20.9m x 4.8m x 4.2m = 421.344m³.

'The average density of granite is 2.75 g/cm3'

Ref: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granite)

Therefore the approximate weight of this stone is 1158.696 tons.

Three other smaller stones under 'The Grand Terrace' of the temple itself are also estimated to weigh from between 750 and 1,000 tons each (9), and there are several other colossal stones to be seen around the great 'Temple of the Sun' at Ba'albek.

The stones were cut from red granite, with the largest 'The stone of the south' (as seen above), still attached to the bedrock. All the large stones used for the temple of the sun at Ba'albek were quarried from the same location, and taken over half a mile uphill to build the great temple.

(More about Ba'albek)

 

3) The Ramesseum, Egypt - The Ramesseum is the memorial temple of Pharaoh Ramesses II. Originally called the House of millions of years of Usermaatra-setepenra that unites with Thebes-the-city in the domain of Amon.

In front of the ruins is the base of the colossus of Ramesses. On the granite colossus's shoulder is an inscription describing Ramesses as the "sun of Princes". The statue fell into the Second Court and the head and torso remain there, but the other broken pieces are in museums all over the world.

Only fragments of the base and torso remain of the colossal statue of the enthroned Ramasses, (19m high and weighing around 1000 tons). The stone for the statue was transported 170 miles over land from Aswan to Thebes. This would have once been the largest statue (except statues carved in situ) in the world. (23)

 

Collossi of Memnon.4) The Colossi of Memnon, Egypt. - These two giants were built from a single piece of stone each. They are orientated towards the sunrise at winter solstice (12)

Estimates: 2 x 1,000 tons (11), 2 x 600 tons (2)

(Inter. Herald Tribune (22/23 Dec 1973).) - 720 tons

(R. T. Gould; A book of Marvels; 1937, p. 133.) - 1200 tons.

The statues are made from blocks of quartzite sandstone  which was stone quarried at el-Gabal el Ahmar (near modern-day Cairo) and transported 420 miles over land without using the Nile to Thebes. They are too heavy to transport upstream on the Nile. The mortuary temple, built for the eighteenth-dynasty king Amenhotep III (c. 1390-1352 BC), that once stood behind these two figures was completely stripped for its masonry.

(Other examples of extreme Egyptian masonry)

 

5) Solomon's Temple, Israel - The Western-wall Stone, from the Western-wall tunnel, The Largest stone is estimated at 11.625m long. Estimates of weight vary from 500 to 600 tons.

'The wall had an original height of from seventy to one hundred and forty feet. In places it is built from bottom to top of large squared stones, bevelled at the edges and varying between 97.5cm and 1.80m in height. The stones are laid without cement. The longest hitherto discovered measures 11.625m in length (not less than one hundred tonnes). Many of the other blocks are from half to two thirds of this height. The massiveness of the work is on par with the Egyptian pyramid-Kings; and the perfection of the cutting and fitting of the stones is nearly equal.' (1)

 

The stone has a length of 13.6 meters, a width estimated between 3.5 to 4.5 meters; estimates place the weight at 570 tons. (Ref: Wikipedia.org)

1 Kings 13-17: 13 And king Solomon chose workmen out of all Israel, and the levy was of thirty thousand men. 14 And he sent them to Libanus, ten thousand every month, by turns, so that two months they were at home: and Adoniram was over this levy. 15 And Soloman had seventy thousand to carry burdens, and eighty thousand to hew stones in the mountain: 16 Besides the overseers who were over every work, in number three thousand and three hundred, that ruled over the people, and them that did the work. 17 And the king commanded that they should bring great stones, costly stones, for the foundation of the temple, and should square them: 18 And the masons of Solomon and the masons of Hiram, hewed them: and the Giblians prepared timber and stones to build the house.

(More about Jerusalem)

 

6) Ethiopia - The Stellae of Axum (Aksum).

The area of Axum is home to what was once seven large stellae, all decorated in the same style, with doors and windows and astral imagery at the top. The largest (still standing) is 21m high (70ft) but there were larger with the heaviest, now fallen and broken estimated to have originally weighed in at around 500 tons. 

(Ref: BBC. 'Around the world in eighty treasures' BBC2 - 29th Nov 2007)

Axum was the ancient political and religious capital of Ethiopia. Though the exact date of its founding is not known, it is known that the Queen of Sheba, who reigned around 1000 B.C. had Axum as her royal capital. Axum was also rumoured to be the home of the Ark of the covenant.

(More about Axum)

 

7)  Temple of Sais, Egypt. Weaver (19) quotes Wilkinson's ''Manners and customs of Egypt', who in turn quotes Herodotus concerning a stone edifice near the temple (at Sais) -

"But what in my opinion deserves the greatest admiration, is an edifice of a single stone, brought from the city of Elephantine, a distance of about twenty days journey. Two thousand men of the class of boatmen were employed for the space of three years in transporting it to Sais. Its external length is twenty-one cubits, its breadth is fourteen, and height eight; and in the inside it measures eighteen cubits and twenty digits in length, twelve in breadth and five in height. It stands near the entrance of the temple."

(Ref: Herodotus. Vol i. p. 190).

The Ancient Egyptian unit of linear measurement, known as the Royal Cubit, was maintained as 523.5mm in length, and was subdivided into 7 palms of 4 digits each. (Ref: Wilkipedia). The stone in question therefore measured as follows:

(External dimensions) - 10.99m x 7.33m x 4.19m = 337.5m³. (1000+ tons)

(Internal cavity) - 9.81m x 6.28m x 2.62m = 161.4m³. (500+ tons)

Estimated weight of remaining stone = 500+ tons.

 

8) The Ghiza Plateau, Egypt. - There are several extraordinary sized stones recorded at the Ghiza plateau, with the largest regularly estimated at over 400 tons....

Temple East of 'Khafres' Pyramid.

'Largest stone estimated 468 ton block' (11).

 (J. Cook; The Pyramids of Giza; p. 22). - 'Khafre foundation stones > 400 tons'.

 

 

Mortuary temple of Menkaure (Mycerinus).   

[Edwards, p. 265] -  200 tons

http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/ - 285 tons

'Reisner estimated that some of the blocks of local stone in the walls of the mortuary temple weighed as much as 220 tons, while the heaviest granite ashlars imported from Aswan weighed more than 30 tons'.

Ref:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Menkaure

Valley temple.(Ancient-wisdom.co.uk)

 

 

The 'Valley Temple' - The Valley temple was built from huge granite blocks in the style of the Osireion at Abydoss. They are estimated at around 50 tons + each. The whole temple in turn was encased in even larger limestone blocks, the largest of which has been (enthusiastically) estimated at around 200 tons.

 

 

The 'Great' pyramid of Khufu - The 'Kings chamber' in the Great pyramid is covered over with several granite stones estimated at 50-70 tons each. The Gable stones over the entrance (left) and several of the stones covering the descending passage are also several cubic metres in size.

Maximum weight of stone in great pyramid:

(Guinness, p. 119). 50 tons

(R. J. Cook; The Pyramids of Giza; p. 22). 70 tons

(More about the Ghiza Complex)

 

It is noticeable that all the megaliths above are from the middle-east, but it should be remembered that they were cut long after the European ones, such as the Grand Menhir (below) which were carved in a cruder style retaining a natural aspect to the stone, in contrast to the squared edges produced by the Egyptian masons.

 

Link to Le Grand Menhir Brise9) Le Grand Menhir Brise, Brittany, France - Over 20m high.

Regularly estimated weight @ 300-350 tons.

(Michelin Green Guide – France, p. 263).  - 'Almost 350 tons'.

According to the most recent calculations, it amounted to 347,531 kilogram's, or 342 tons

(L'Homme, 188 5, p. 1 93).

This giant now lies at the end of a Neolithic long barrow, broken in four pieces. The stone was believed by Prof. A. Thom. to be used to mark positions in the lunar cycle.

It is now known that this stone was once the largest of 19 menhirs, erected around 4,500 BC, which originally stood in an alignment forming a line of decreasing height from Le Grand Menhir downwards.

(More about Le Grand Menhir Brisé)

 

Unconfirmed...

Acosta, in his "History of the Indes," lib. vi., p.459, as quoted by Maurice "Observations connected with astronomy and the ancient history of Babylon", states that some of the stones in the Mexican temples to Sun and Moon measure 38 feet by 18 feet by 6 feet. (38 x 18 x 6 = 4104 ft³) = (11.5 x 5.45 x 1.8 = 112.8 m³). (12)

Estimated weight of stones - approx 300 -400 tons.

 

10) The 'Lateran' Obelisk, Rome. - The so-called 'Lateran' obelisk is the largest standing obelisk in the world. The obelisk is 106 ft high, weighs approximately 330 tons, and was once the tallest obelisk in Egypt. The Lateran obelisk had a base weighing 174 tons. (16)

Its inscriptions state that while it was begun during the reign of Tuthmosis III, it lay in the craftsmen's workshops for 35 years and was finally erected by his grandson Tuthmosis IV. The obelisk was removed under the orders of the Roman emperor Constantine (A.D. 274-337), who hoped to raise it in his new capital at Constantinople. He died before the obelisk ever left Egypt, and his son and successor Constantius (A.D. 317-361) had it taken to Rome, where it was re-erected in the Circus Maximus.

(R. A. Hayward; Cleopatra's Needles; pp. 15-17).  -  330 tons.

(Other Egyptian Obelisks)

 

Link to Karnak11) Karnak (Thebes), Egypt - Karnak now only contains three obelisks,  all made of pink granite from the Aswan quarries 186 miles upriver. Two obelisks still stand from the reigns of King Thutmose I (c. 1528-1510 BC), and Queen Hatshepsut (c. 1490-1486 BC), and are said to weigh approximately 300 tons each (232 tons - Ref-16), with a height of 29.5 metres.

Hancock (8), estimated the Thutmosis I obelisk to stand at '21.3m high and weighs an estimated 143 tonnes', and mentions an inscriptions which tells us that the obelisk was once covered with electrum - (An alloy of gold and silver). (8)

A third obelisk, of which only the upper 9 metres still remain, lies nearby. Also raised in the time of Queen Hatshepsut, this obelisk is estimated to have originally weighted 320 tons (only 70 tons now remains). This obelisk, when thumped, is known to have resonant qualities, that last for up to 30 seconds. (14)

This last obelisk was also once part of a pair - the other was erected in the place de Concorde, France in 1836 and is estimated to weigh about 300 tons. (4)

(More about Karnak)

 

12) Korea. - The 'Ganghwa Dolmens'

Korea has the highest concentration of dolmens in the world, with over 30,000, possessing between 40% and 50% of the worlds total.

The island of Ganghwa contains several dolmens, one of which has the biggest recorded stone in South Korea and measures at 2.6 x 7.1 x 5.5 meters. (101.53 m³)

The Ganghwa dolmen are accredited with capstones weighing 300 tons (28) at Gochang, but there is no support for Chatelain's (13) mention of a 600 ton capstone.

(More about the Korean Dolmens)

 

13). El Enladrillado, Chile - 'The blocks are roughly rectangular, some as large as 12 to 16 ft high, 20 to 30 ft long, and weighing several hundred tons'.

'On the plateau of Enladrillado, 233 stone blocks are placed geometrically in an amphitheatre-like arrangement.. As at Tiahuanaco, huge chairs of stone have been found in the ruins, each weighing approx 10 tons. Three standing stones were placed in the very centre of the plateau, each 3 to 4 ft in diameter. Measurements reveal that two of the stones are perfectly aligned with magnetic north, while a line through one of these and the third stone points to the midsummer sunrise'. (9)

(More about El Endrillado soon)

 

14) Sahure's  pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt - The largest stones over the king's chamber is estimated at around 200 tons. (26)

Sahure was the second Pharaoh of the 5th dynasty. He also had a pyramid complex made for him at Abusir.

The colossal roof blocks of Suhare's temple weighed up to about 220 tons based on estimates by J.S. Perring. He estimated the size of the largest blocks at 35 feet by 9 feet by 12 feet. One end of these blocks was tapered so the estimated volume is 95 cubic meters by 2.4 tons. There were a total of at least 12 blocks the smallest were less than 100 tons. All but 2 of these are now broken. The Valley building of Sahure's Pyramid at Abu Sir included 8 monolithic granite columns with leafs on their capitals. These were probably not more than about 10 tons each but what makes them worth noting is that over a portion 2.6 meters long they taper from 91.2 cm to 79.8 cm with the error from the mean diameter never more than 8 millimetres. (26)

(More about Saqqara)

 

Unconfirmed...

Cyprus - The Temple of Paphos - The largest stones measure 16ft x 8ft (4.8m x 2.4m = 11.52m² x ?).

'The Temple has a double enceinte or parabolas, both of them oblong squares, the outer one 700 ft long by 630 ft broad, the inner 224 ft by 165. The two parabola are symmetrically placed, and were of the usual colossal masonry. The material used was bluish granite, not to be found in the country, which can only have been brought either from Egypt or Cilicia.' (1)

 

15) Cueva de la menga, Antequera, Spain - One of three huge megalithic mounds in the area. As well as being composed of several gigantic stones, the entrance capstone to the primary mound, known as Cueva de la Menga, is said to weigh 160-180 tons. (15)

180 tons - (George Kean; Essential Seville; AA Publishing, Basingstoke, 1992, p. 56).

The chamber is supported by three pillars, and is said to have the largest chamber in Europe (25m x 6m at its widest).

The mound faces the famous Pena de Los Enamorados mountain that resembles an upturned head, and is suggested as the reason for its orientation and/or location.

A 30m well has recently been discovered perfectly carved into the bedrock, and still with water in it.

(More about the Cueva de Menga complex)

 

16) Tlaloc Statue, Mexico - Found in the town of Coatlinchan near Tlaloc Mountain in the State of Mexico and weighing 168 tons, this is the largest existing monolith in the Americas.

This statue was made of Basalt and weighed an estimated 168 tons. (24) It was moved to the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City in 1964.

Tlaloc, the provider, had attributes of the rain. He created and brought down the rain and the hail. He caused the trees, the grasses, the maize to blossom, to sprout, and to grow. Also attributed to Tlaloc was the thunderbolts and the drowning of people.

Some scholars believe that the statue may not have been Tlaloc at all but his sister or some other female deity.

(More about Pre-Columbian Mexico)

 

Link to Easter island 17) Easter Island - Largest moai:

Location: Rano Raraku Quarry, named "El Gigante". Height: 71.93 feet, (21.60 meters). Weight: approximately 145-165 tons (160-182 metric tons).

 'Largest carved stone (still unfinished), approx 400 tonnes'. (3)

 Ref: (P, Bahn & J. Flenley; Easter Island; Focus. Apr 1994.  92-97)  - 275 tons.

Note on Photo (Right): Zink (5), estimates the largest 'Moai' on the island at 90 tons ('length 90ft, still in quarry'), so the picture provided is only demonstrative rather than the actual stone.

(Note the person in pit for scale).

(More on Easter Island)

 

Link to Dol de Bretagne18) Dol-de Bretagne, Champ Dolent, France. - (Route 795)

Sitting directly on the border of Brittany and Normandy, this menhir stands 9.5m high with an estimated weight of 150 tons. (4)

THE LARGEST STANDING MENHIR IN FRANCE.

Nearby mount Dol is said to have been the place where Lucifer fought St. Michael. The Stone is in alignment with Mont Dol and Dol Cathedral. For more about this see the Prehistoric France Homepage, or the page on Mont St. Michael.

 

(More about the Dol-de-Breton)

 

19) Kerloas Menhir. Nr Plouharnel, Brittany, France.

 - Highest estimated weight 150 tons. Height 9.5m.

> 100 tons. - (P. R. Giot; Menhirs and Dolmens; Editions Jos, 1986, p. 4).

Although Paturi (4), claimed this to be the largest standing stone in France. And although once correct, that claim is now technically no longer so as, following the loss of the top 1.5m, it now stands at the same height as the Dol-de Bretagne (above), but with a smaller girth.

 

(The largest Menhirs in France)

 

20) The Puma Punka - 'Gate of the Puma', Tiahuanaco, Bolivia.

    In a wall at Tiahuanaco (Knowledge 3. 30th Nov. 1883. No 331)  - 125 tons.

The two enormous sandstone blocks in the foreground of the photo (right), are estimated to weigh around 130 tons each. (25) The nearest source of sandstone is around 10km away.

Largest estimates: 200 tons - (11),  'At least 200 tons' (5)

One of the most mysterious and enigmatic sites in south America, due to its height and spectacular masonry.

Certain of these Andesite blocks resembles a machinist's work, with straight, true edges and countersunk geometrical shapes. Some of the Sandstone and Andesite blocks are over 27 feet long. The nearest source for this material is 20 km to the north. (5)

(More about Tiahuanaco)

 

21) Sacsayhuaman, Peru - (The Andes. North of Cuzco).

The largest stones at this site are 28 ft high (8.4m) and while regularly estimated to weigh over 120 tons (23), more enthusiastic estimates place the largest stones at 300 tons (4), 361 tons (9), and even 440 tons (5).

Located on the outskirts of the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco. It rests on an artificially levelled mountaintop, and consists of three outer lines of gargantuan walls, 1,500 ft long and 54 ft wide, surrounding a paved area containing a circular stone structure believed to be a solar calendar. One block on the outer walls has faces cut to fit perfectly with 12 other blocks. Other blocks were cut with as many as 36 sides. All the blocks were fitted together so precisely that a thickness gauge could not be inserted between them.

(More about Sacsayhuaman)

 

22) Egypt, Dashur - In the 'unfinished' brick pyramid located at Dashur, the quartzite cask, even after being emptied, still weighs nearly 145 metric tons; as for the sealing slab, which weight 83 metric tons, it is still in its preliminary position, raised on four temporary post, as the cask seems never to have been used.

 

23) Heliopolis, Egypt:

The last standing obelisk at Heliopolis and therefore the oldest known surviving in Egypt, this stone is twenty metres high and weighs 121 tons.

Today, all that remains of this once great city is a single (20.4m high, 121 ton), obelisk, originally one of a pair erected at the entrance of a huge temple to mark the 12th dynasty king Senusret I's 30th anniversary at around 1940 BC. (22)

(More about Heliopolis)

 

24) The Sarcophagus of Amenemhet III , Egypt.

A quartzite monolith weighing 110 metric tons (121 Imperial tons), was placed in a chamber with an interior length of 7 metres and walls 1 metre thick. (16) The quartzite monolith was lowered onto the sarcophagus by means of sand-flow, and the chamber was later covered with another two huge 50-ton limestone vaulting stones.

Above the burial chamber were 2 relieving chambers. This was topped with 50 ton limestone slabs forming a pointed roof. Then an enormous arch of brick 3 feet thick was built over the pointed roof to support the core of the pyramid. (26)

The sarcophagus was found to be empty when opened.

 

Bajoulerie dolmen - (ancient-wisdom.co.uk)25a) Bajouliere dolmen, Near Samur, France.

The beautifully carved cap-stone on this dolmen is now broken into four pieces. It is the largest capstone in France, and in terms of physical size, is most significantly larger than the Brown's Hill  capstone (below), although the estimate on its weight is the same.

This dolmen is one of the great Loire dolmens, several of which were built with stones ranging between 50 and 100 tons each.

(More about Bajouliere and the Loire Dolmens)

 

 

25b) The Gollenstein (Goldenstein and Güldenstein), Germany.

The Gollenstein of Blieskastel has a height of 7.6m and stands as the second-largest menhir of Central Europe. The stone originates from Neolithic time (around 3,000 BC). During the second world war the German army broke the good old menhir into four pieces so that the French could not use it as a reference point. After the war, it was repaired and erected again. (15)

It is estimated to weigh around 100 tons.

(More about Prehistoric Germany)   

 

25c) Browne's hill Dolmen, County Carlow, Ireland.

 'The capstone is estimated to weigh around 100 tons'. (10)

(Blue Guide - Ireland, p. 148).  - 100 tons.

This partially collapsed dolmen is said to have:'...the largest capstone in Europe.' (15), but it must be noted that while the capstone on the Bajouliere dolmen (above) is estimated at the same weight, it is considerably larger in size.

(More about the Browne's Hill dolmen)

 

Link to Ollantiatambo25d) Ollantaytambo, S. America - Altitude 10,000 ft. (Largest Stones estimated at 100 tons)

    6.5 x 2.7 x 2.1m =  37 m3 = 92 tons.

Ref: (J.-P. Protzen; Inca Stonemasonry; Sci. Amer. 254:2 (Feb 1986) 80 & 82).

A Pre-Inca fortress, with rock walls of tightly fitted blocks weighing between 50 and 100 tons each. Most of the blocks consist of a hard andesite, the quarries for which are situated on a mountaintop seven miles distant. As well as the difficulties that must have been experienced in dressing the stones, they had to be lowered down one mountain, over (presumably), a river canyon with 1000 ft sheer rock walls, then raised up the mountain the complex is situated on. (9)

(More about Ollantaytambo)

 

The 'Cove', Avebury. (Ancient-wisdom.co.uk)25e) The Cove, Avebury, England. - An attempt to straighten the two stones called 'The Cove' in 2003, revealed the fact that one of the stones, which stands 14ft (4.4m), above the ground, also exists at least 7ft (2.2m) below the ground (reaching a possible 10ft /3m deep).

The weight of this stone is calculated at around 100 tons.

Refs: Daily Telegraph News (8 April 2003); The Scotsman (17 April 2003), The Guardian (18 April 2003)

(More about Avebury)

 

Link to prehistoric Greece.25f) Mycenae, Greece - The Treasury of Atreus.

The largest stones including the lintels and gate jambs weighed well over 20 tonnes some may have been close to 100 tonnes. (23

The famous 'Treasury of Atreus' was built on the site of an oracle centre. It is noticeable that its shape is comparable to a 'negative omphalos' in design.

“One or the lintels over the entrance door measures 9 x 5 x 1.2m, with an estimated weight of 120 tons.”

 

(More about Mycenae)

 

 

31). The Bagneux Dolmen (Nr Saumur, France).

Although this is frequently classified as a 'Dolmen', it is more of a stone chamber or hall. Regardless of its classification, it is the largest covered megalithic chamber in France.

This 'dolmen' has four capstones, each about 2ft thick with the largest estimated 'very accurately by Vice-Admiral Boyle Summerville to weigh just over 86 tons'. (10)

The same area of the Loire has several similar 'dolmens' also made of gigantic slabs weighing between 50 and 100 tonnes apiece.

(More about Bagneux and the great Loire dolmens)

 

32). The Menhir of Saint-Uzec, France:

This heavily christianised stone was erected around 4.000 BC. The process of  re-shaping the top has resulted in the stone losing some of its original height.

It is estimated to weigh around 80 tons, measures 8,10 m high and 3,10 m wide. It is buried from 5 to 6 m in the ground.

The grooves on the 'rear' of the menhir (visible in this picture) are reminiscent of the grooves seen in the three immense 'Devils arrow's' which stand near the Thornborough henges in England.

(Click here for other French Menhirs)

 

33). Ishibutai, Japan:

'A detailed study has been made of the construction of the Japanese megalithic tomb of Ishibutai; which is by no means the largest of Japanese megaliths, but is certainly one of the largest tombs.

Ishibutai has a rectangular chamber measuring 25ft by 11ft by 15ft high approached by a passage 38ft in length, and roofed by two capstones each weighing between 60 and 70 tons each. (10)

Modern estimates place the largest stone at approximately 75 tons.

(More about Prehistoric Japan)

 

 

Link to Hagar Qim, Malta 34). Hagar-Qim (Malta). (Jadjar-Kim) - Which means cult-stones, or monument stones.

What may be the single largest stone on Malta is found in the Northern wall of this temple; It is around 7m long, and is regularly estimated to weigh about 70 tons. (8)  

It lies at the Eastern end of Hagar Qim and measures 19 feet long by 9 feet tall by 2 feet thick. It weighs 57 tons. (Source: Insight Compact Guide to Malta, APA Publications (HK) Ltd, 1995)

(The largest stone at Ggantija measures 5m x 8m x 0.5m = 20m³).

(More about Hagar Qim)

 

35a). At Carrickglass, Sligo, Ireland: '..The chamber of the dolmen is an accurate rectangle, and the portico is formed by adding two side-slabs outside one of the end slabs, but still under the cover. This last is a remarkable block of limestone weighing about 70 tons. This form of tomb is without doubt a link between the simple dolmen and the corridor-tomb'. (18)

35b). Howth, Dublin, Ireland: - Partially collapsed dolmen or  'Portal-tomb'. The quartzite capstone is estimated to weigh 70 tonnes.  (ref: www.irishmegaliths.org)

(More about Prehistoric Ireland)

 

Unconfirmed...

Mexico, Quirigua: “…the largest Mayan stele, at Quirigua, measuring 10.7 x 1.5 x 1.27 meters, and weighing 65 tons.” “the site of Quirigua is where the largest monolith in the Maya world stands. It is the Stella E, weighing 65 tons and standing 35 feet high. It was quarried about three miles away.”
 

37). Lough Gur: Lios na Grainsa, Grange, Limerick, Ireland - The largest stone-circle in Ireland.

The largest stone of this late Neolithic henge and stone circle is just N of the entrance to the henge, and is known as Rannach Cruim Dubh (prominent black stopper or hunchback).

It weighs an estimated 60 tons and aligns with the midsummer sunrise.

(More about 'The Lios') 

 

 

38) The Wall of Aradus, (Now Ruad) '...which formerly surrounded the whole island, and which served at once for a defence against the enemy and against the waves It is composed of quadrangular prisms nine feet three inches in height, and from thirteen to sixteen feet long, sometimes without art and even with a sort of negligence, the joints of the stones being in some cases exactly imposed one over the other, sometimes, on the other hand, with an extreme care and attention. The courses are at times regular, small blocks being used to fill in the apertures, and a perfect junction of the parts being in this way effected, but at times the arrangement of the blocks is without any strict or rigorous order, with the exception that they are always laid horizontally One observes no cement. The courses, which in some places number five or six, rest upon a foundation of rock artificially scarped...' (1)

(Largest stones 13-16 ft x 9 ft 3 inches) (approx 5m x 3m = 15m³).

 

The Osireion. Ancient-wisdom.co.uk39) The Osireion, Abydoss, Egypt. - (Strabo's well).

Each of the ten pillars estimates at around 50 - 60 tons each.

The Royal graveyard at Abydoss is believed to date back to pre-dynastic times, and the Osireion, over which the temple of Seti I was built, assuredly dates from an early time too. Lockyer calls Abydoss one of the 'Holiest places in Egypt in the very earliest of times' (2).

Abydoss has revealed itself to be one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. It is the site of the pre-dynastic royal graveyard, and of the Osireion, an enigmatic underground chamber connected to the Nile and fashioned from enormous blocks. The style of masonry has been compared to that seen at the Valley temple, Giza.

(More about the Osireion, Abydoss)

 

40a) Old Keig, Scotland. (Recumbent stone circle)

The recumbent stone at Old Keig, Aberdeenshire, is the largest in Scotland. It weighs in at approximately 53 tons (20). The top surface of the stone is perfectly horizontal and covers 27˚ of the horizon, enabling viewers to mark both the major standstill of the midsummer full moon setting over the left-hand side of the recumbent and the minor standstill of the midsummer full moon over the right-hand side. In addition to this, the midwinter sun sets over it as seen from the centre of the circle.

The stone was quarried from at least ten miles away from the site.

(More about Recumbent stone circles)

 

40b). Gobekli Tepe, Turkey.  (Shrine/Temple)

 This site, dated at 9,000 BC, is currently considered to be the oldest shrine/temple/megalithic complex in the world.

At Gobekli Tepe, 15 km northeast of the city of Sanliurfa, stand four megalithic limestone pillars, 7m tall and weighing around 50 tons each.

(More about Gobekli Tepi)

 

Link to the Ante Grande do Zambujeiro40c). Anta Grande do Zambujeiro, Portugal. - The amazing Passage mound at Zambujeira is composed of eight more super-sized stones, all larger than the one in the photo (right), making the 6m high central chamber, one of the largest in Europe. Giant stones lay around the site, which was all covered once with a huge mound larger in size to those further north such as Maes Howe or Knowth.

Measures 6m x 3.5m x 1/2m = 10.25m³ = (Approx) 50 tonnes.

This site is one of the most impressive in Portugal and is worth leaving the beaten track for a visit.

(Click here for more about Zambujeiro)

 

Pre-Colubian Stone-heads. La Venta.40d). The 'African' heads: La Venta, South America.

These colossal heads found on the Mexican peninsula all face the Atlantic and share the same Negroid features. They are dated between 800 BC- 680 BC (21). and are associated with the Olmec culture.

The largest head is over 9ft high (3m), and was found in La Venta. It is estimated at around 50 Tons (23). It is described as follows...

'...I'ts domed top flattened so it could function as an altar. A speaking tube was found going in at the ear and out at the mouth; it was used as an oracle, a talking god. It was associated with the first construction phase of the ceremonial court' in which it was found.' (21)

(More about the La Venta Stone Heads).

 

40e). Stonehenge , England. - (Phase 3) (From 2,100-1,700 BC).

Stonehenge (ancient-wisdom.co.uk)Double circle of bluestones taken down and replaced with '81 or more' sarsen stones, weighing between 40 and 50 tons each. Horse-shoe of five trilithon's erected in centre. These were quarried from the Marlborough Downs about 20 miles north. (9).

'There is strong evidence that they (the builders of Stonehenge III) were in communication with the great contemporary Mediterranean civilisations of Minoan Crete, Mycenaean Greece, Egypt, and the ancestors of the travelling-trading Phoenicians....Atkinson inclines seriously towards this theory, stressing the importance of the evidence of the dagger carvings and axe carvings as well as Mediterranean artefacts found in the burials of Stonehenge, and pointing out that Stonehenge is is unique not only in the elegance of its construction but also the fact that it is the only stone monument built by the Wessex people.' (3)

(More about Stonehenge)

 

40f). Hal-Tarxien, Malta. - Three temples are dated to 3,000 B.C. (12)

Location of the great 'Earth Mother' statue, which once stood at 2.4m high. Blocks carved weighing up to 50 tons each. The temple complex at Hal-Tarxien contains examples of spirals, animal carvings, concrete, holed stones and much more.

This temple is believed to be a 'partner temple' to the nearby underground Hypogeum.

 

(More about Hal-Tarxien)

 

 

46). Roche aux Fees. France.

Originally covered by a tumulus Passage-mound), this construction contains 42 huge stones, the heaviest of which weighs 45 tons, which are now above ground level, giving it the appearance of a great, multi-sectioned dolmen (Passage couvert). The South/East facing entrance is orientated directly towards the winter solstice sunrise.

Centuries ago, engaged couples would walk around the stones during a new moon while counting the stones. If they agreed upon the number of stones in the monument, their marriage would do well, but if their numbers were more than two stones apart, the relationship was doomed.

 

47). Capstone of Proleek Dolmen, 'The Giant's load', near Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland.

The huge capstone rests on only three uprights. It is believed that this dolmen was aligned towards Slieve Gullion, where on the summer solstice the sun sets behind the mountain.

  Ref: (MGG‑Ireland, p. 59). - Estimated weight 40 tons

It is said that whoever manages to throw a stone onto the top so that it stays there will have their wish come true.

(More about Prehistoric Ireland)

(More about Dolmen)

 

48) Rudstone monument, England - Estimated weight 40 tons.

The tallest standing stone in Britain, at just under 8 m in height, with a circumference of 5m. The pointed top is protected with a metal cap. Dragged from Cayton or Cornelian Bay 16 Km to the north, the stone weights an estimated 40 Tons. The stone was erected in approximately 1600 BC, and its depth into the ground may be as much as its height! There is a smaller gritstone in the nearby cemetery, along with a slab cyst grave. An oft-quoted legend recounts how the Devil threw the stone at the church and missed.

Plan of the surrounding area showing the site of surrounding cursuses, shown up by air observation in 1962. Cursus A revealed flints and pottery sherds suggesting a late Neolithic / Early Bronze Age date, tallying with the period of greatest megalith building.

(More about the Rudstone monument)

 

49). The Lamassu of Nimrud, Iraq - The following is an extract from Wikipedia:

In 1847, after discovering more than half a dozen winged pair of colossal statues of lions and bulls also known as lamassu weighing up to 30 short tons (27 t) Henry Layard brought two of the colossi weighing 10 short tons (9.1 t) each including one lion and one bull to London. After 18 months and several near disasters he succeeded in bringing them to a British museum. This involved loading them onto a wheeled cart. They were lowered with a complex system of pulleys and levers operated by dozens of men. The cart was towed by 300 men. He initially tried to hook the cart up to a team of buffalo and have them haul it. However the buffalo refused to move. Then they were loaded onto a barge which required 600 goatskins and sheepskins to keep it afloat. After arriving in London a ramp was built to haul them up the steps and into the museum on rollers.

Additional 30 short tons (27 t) colossi were transported to Paris from Khorsabad by Paul Emile Botta in 1853. In 1928 Edward Chiera also transported a 40 short tons (36 t) Colossus from Khorsabad to Chicago.

(More about ancient Iraq)

 

Maes Howe, Orkneys, Scotland.50). Maes Howe, Orkneys, Scotland. The entrance passage to this lovely passage mound is lined with huge slabs, the largest of which is estimated to weigh over 30 tons. (29)

The entrance to the Maes-Howe passage-mound is orientated towards the setting winter solstice sun behind the prominent Hills of Hoy in the distance. The chamber was placed so that for several days before and after the winter solstice, the sunlight flashes directly into the passage not once, but twice, with a break of several minutes between each illumination.

The cruciform chamber in the centre of the mound is vaulted by a corbelled roof, and has three small sub-chambers leading from it. Each of these chambers was sealed with a stone which only covered 2/3rds of the opening, a feature seen at the entrance of the main passage of the mound, where a blocking stone was fitted into a cavity in the wall, which when closed (from inside), is small enough to allow a small amount of sunlight to still pass over the top and into the chamber. This particular astronomical feature is similar to 'light-boxes' found in other passage mounds in Ireland and Wales (Newgrange, Carrowkeel, Bryn Celli Ddu). A similar feature is believed to have been found on the Orkneys at the recently destroyed/restored Crantit Tomb.

(More about Maes Howe)     (More about light-boxes)

 

Extreme Prehistoric Masonry.

Prehistoric Construction Techniques

Desecrated Megaliths.

 
 
References:
 
1). George Rawlinson. The Story of the Nations: Phoenicia. 1889. T. Fisher Unwin.
2). Eric Von Daniken. In Search of Ancient Gods. 1974. Souvenir Press.
3). Charles Berlitz. Atlantis. 1984. Guild Publishing.
4). Felix R. Paturi. Prehistoric Heritage. 1979. Purnell & Sons.
5). D. Zink. The Ancient Stones Speak. 1979. Musson Book Co.
6). D. Trump and D. Cilia. Malta: Prehistory and Temples. 2004. Midsea Books.
7). Rene Noorbergen. Secrets of the Lost Races. New English Library. 1977.
8). G. Hancock. Heaven's Mirror. 1998. Michael Joseph Ltd.
9). Michael M. Alouf. History of Baalbek. 1999. Book Tree Publ.
10). Glyn Daniel. The Megalithic Builders of Western Europe. 1958. Hutchinson.
11). William Fix. Pyramid Odyssey
12). J. N. Lockyer. The Dawn of Astronomy. 1964. M.I.T. Press
13). Maurice Chatelain. Our Cosmic Ancestors. 1987. Temple Golden Pebl.
14). Andrew Collins. Gods of Eden. 1998. Headline book Publ.
15). J. Cope. The Megalithic European. 2004. Harper collins.
16). P. Tompkins. The Magic of Obelisks. 1981. Harper and Row.
17). Pierre-Roland. Prehistory in Brittany. 2000. Editions D'Art.
18). T. Eric Peet. Rough Stone Monuments and their Builders. 1912. Harper and Brothers.
19). R. Weaver. Monumenta Antiqua. 1840. J. B. Nichols and Sons Publ.
20). http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/pls/portal/newcanmore.details_gis?inumlink=17530
21). Ivan Van Sertima. They came before Columbus. 1976. Random House.
23). "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999 (Thames and Hudson).
24). http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/bevans/Art446-03-Teotihuacan/WebPage-Info.00033.html
25). Browman, D. L., 1981, New light on Andean Tiwanaku. New Scientist. vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 408-419.
26). Edwards, Dr. I.E.S.: The Pyramids of Egypt. 1986/1947 p. 237-240
27). Rob Rachowiecki, Charlotte Beech. Peru. Lonely Planet. 2004.
28). http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Gochang,_Hwasun_and_Ganghwa_Dolmen_Sites
29). http://www.maeshowe.co.uk/maeshoweabout.html

 

 
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